Category : Environmental Issues
Can you imagine being able to impact an entire community with the simple gift of clean water? Tis the season of giving and in light of recent natural disasters, it’s important to give back to those who are in need this precious gift.
Last year, Berkey Filters had the opportunity to help ROWAN (Rural Orphans & Widows AIDS Network) in Eastern Uganda. The network exists to help Orphans & Widows through; education, medical care and treatment, and business training. We were happy to provide Berkey systems as well as Berkey Sport Bottles, to deliver clean water. This year we partnered with the program again.
The thing I love about ROWAN is that they work closely with Ugandan widows, caregivers & community members – most of whom lost their spouse to AIDS.
The pure joy and health provided to these widows and orphans is priceless.
Here at Berkey Filters, we are also working closely with relief organizations like the Salvation Army to help in aiding recently affected hurricane communities with clean water.
What would you do if you could help?
The Berkey system can help people across the globe. Recently our friends at the Blinded Veterans Association of Puerto Rico were able to provide blind veterans access to clean water with the Berkey systems.
“Angel Reyes, President of the Blind Veteran’s Association, along with Sergeant- Major Ruben Sanchez, the Secretary-Treasurer have organized a team of workers, many of whom are blind or legally blind, to prepare, assemble and load the filters into private vehicles that are able to get into areas where larger relief vehicles can’t go,” explained Walt Gallaway in an email to Berkey Filters.
Walt has been the middleman in helping us ship systems to Puerto Rico.
He goes on to explain, “These guys, are using their own money and vehicles to get filters to the most remote and needy areas. They go into smaller remote neighborhoods where a blind veteran lives, organize the neighborhood to share one or more filters, teach a responsible person how to maintain and keep the filter producing.”
What’s so extraordinary about these men is Sanchez, himself, is legally blind and his son drives him on filter deliveries. Can you imagine what it must be like to hand a filter to someone who has had nothing but rainwater to drink for over a month!
It’s because of these selfless organizations like Rowan and the Blind Veteran’s Group that so many without access to clean water can now confidently provide such a vital human necessity to those in need. Gallaway described it perfectly in saying, “These filters are making a huge difference in the mental and emotional health of the people delivering them as well as those who are using them.”
So, in the season of giving back, we applaud these organization for spreading the Berkey love!
This beautiful water is not as plentiful as it might seem!
Image via Manuel Calavera (Flickr)
Statistics on Water and Water Pollution
It seems hard to believe that in this day and age, people remain complacent about water pollution, but if you simply observe people around you, you’ll see that many are. Despite our knowledge of water pollution, the scarcity of water, and especially the scarcity of safe drinking water, we still over-consume and waste our resources every second of every day. It truly boggles my mind, but this is my field of work, my passion, so perhaps I have an edge on others who focus their lives around things other than water. This is one of the reasons why I began writing this blog, however. I wanted to share my knowledge of water with you, to give you the edge on understanding the importance of water. The statistics are clear and frightening: Our water supplies are polluted and waning. Let’s review some critically important statistics to see what I’m talking about. Read more »
Turn it off!
Image via Jenn Durfey (Flickr)
11 Ways to Save Water At Home
As our winters remain unusually dry in many portions of the country, water conservation is moving to the forefront of many people’s minds. Whether you live in a dry or wet area, you need to conserve water. America’s water supplies are dwindling, and we need to protect this precious resource. In fact, a recent NOAA report confirms that one in every 10 U.S. watersheds is short of water. On top of that, there are more Americans using water than there used to be.
Columbia University Water Center confirmed that global warming isn’t the only thing depleting our water supplies. Over the last 60 years, the United States has experienced a 99 percent increase in its population. We’ve basically doubled, and we cannot stick our heads in the sand any longer. If we keep consuming the water at the rate we are right now we’re going to run out, and some scientists believe that this will happen by the mid-21st century! Clearly, we need to be saving water. Here are eleven ways you can do so to help. Read more »
This makes me so angry and sad…Image via Horia Varlan (Flickr)
How Long Are Plastic Water Bottles In Landfills?
Indefinitely. That is how long plastic water bottles are in landfills. These bottles do not biodegrade; they do not break down and go away. They sit in landfills and pollute our soil and our air. If you toss a plastic water bottle into your trash after you are done with it, you will find that water bottle in the landfill that became its final resting place as long as 1,000 years from now. I’m not kidding. I know you might be blinking at your computer screen thinking, “Lynn. That’s impossible. Everything has to decompose at some point,” and I wish that were true. Unfortunately, most plastic water bottles do not decompose, and this is why they are becoming such a huge environmental problem.
We’ve all said it, “Well, it seemed like a good idea at the time,” and the same can be said about plastic bottles for consumer packaging. Glass bottles are heavy; glass bottles break. Consumers needed something that was easier to handle and didn’t end up costing them an entire bottle of juice, for example, if they dropped the bottle and broke it. We work hard for our money and many of us need to make it stretch. You drop a glass bottle of juice and you’ve lost an entire bottle of juice, plus the money you spent on it. You drop a plastic bottle of juice and, provided the cap is still on, you haven’t lost the juice or the money. Great idea, right? Not so fast. Read more »
Ways to Cut Your Water Usage that are right for YOU
Back in my college days when the first rumblings of the conservation and sustainability movements were being felt, we had an expression that became a bumper-sticker philosophical gem… “Save water… shower with a friend!” Translation: “Conservation can be fun!” In the late 60’s young people were just becoming aware of the unthinking waste of resources that flowed from the affluence and innovation of the WW2 generation.
Today water conservation has become a permanent part of our society, in part due to increased public awareness and in part through legislation. Virtually every aspect of our water usage has been subject to local and federal rules and regulations. All new toilets, faucets, showerheads and many appliances must conform to federal guidelines limiting water flow rates. Washing machines have been subject to such radical rules that many top-loaders must use a special type of detergent to clean properly! Similarly, handling of waste water has been tightly regulated as the pollution of ground water has emerged in some areas as health and safety nightmares. Read more »
Japan’s Fukuoka Water Plant desalinates seawater for 150,000 citizens.
Image via Arun Katiyar (Flickr)
The Process of Desalination
If there is one cruel fact none of us can deny, it is that water is becoming a scarce commodity for many people on the planet. Some people blame global warming, others blame climate change; I tend to think one directly affects the other, so it’s both in my opinion. But, whatever the cause, we need to keep America, and the rest of the world, afloat with plenty of safe water. Water desalination is not something new. It is, however, an uncommon form of water treatment. As our water supplies continue to dissipate, we need to consider the desalination process, and how it will help us and the rest of the world ensure that we have enough safe drinking water.
What Is It?
Let’s begin by discussing what water desalination actually is. The process of desalinating water means that we are removing primarily salt, but also other minerals, from saline water. The desalination process is commonly used on sea vessels, particularly those with long-term water-bound missions such as submarines. Desalination allows those on board the vessel access to plenty of “fresh” water without the necessity of storing gallons of H2O, which would account for too much weight and take up too much space. Read more »
Turn that water faucet off!
Image via Jenn Durfey (Flickr)
Could Water Scarcity be a National Security Concern in the Future?
September 11, 2013 marks the twelfth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, and as a New York City resident, this time always makes me think about national security. An attack of this nature is the type of security threat with which most of us are familiar. When we think of national security, we think of terrorist and war-related attacks. However, I want to talk today about another type of national security concern that also needs to be in the forefront of every American’s mind. This national security threat is water scarcity, and believe me, the threat is very real.
I don’t mean to be a “Debbie-Downer” in this post – any discussion related to national security isn’t generally fun – but if you look at the latest water scarcity facts, you’ll see that this is a discussion we need to have. So, here we go! Let’s take a look at some of the issues surrounding our national water crisis.
Water Is Life
You learned it in elementary school: without water, we have no life. We need water to survive, animals need water to survive, and crops need water to grow. If we have no water, we have no means to sustain our existence. This is why water scarcity is a national security concern. In fact, it’s a global security concern, and we need to look at water scarcity solutions before drought becomes an irreparable epidemic on our home soil.
Think about it. Other nations are already starving to death because they do not have enough clean, safe water to grow food and feed themselves. Can you imagine that in the U.S.? Probably not, but that just might be the source of the problem. We’ve had access to clean water for so long, we simply do not think about not having it, and we need to.
Fracking releases flammable chemicals into our water supplies.
Image via JMR Photography (Flickr)
Water Controversy: Is Fracking Safe and What Do Fracking Chemicals Do to Your Drinking Water?
In popular culture, “frack” is a swear word uttered by the characters of the science fiction franchise “Battlestar Galactica.” “Eureka” fans also heard Fargo use it a time or two. It doesn’t take much imagination to figure out the actual expletive the word represents. In the real world, however, fracking isn’t the granddaddy of all curse words, but it is just as serious. And when it comes to water controversy, fracking water – with good reason – is at the top of the list. Is fracking safe? No. And this blog post will ask and answer some of the most important questions about fracking water and the fracking chemicals polluting our water supplies.
Q: If it isn’t a swear word in outer space, what is the origin of the word “fracking”?
A: “Fracking” is a linguistic blend of the phrase “hydraulic fracturing.” Hydraulic fracturing is also called “hydrofracking.”
Q: What is hydraulic fracturing?
A: Literally, hydraulic fracturing means breaking something apart with water. In this case, hydraulic fracturing means pumping water underground to destroy bedrock and release the natural gas encased within the rock.
Q: Who uses fracking?
A: The gas industry uses fracking to access the earth’s natural gas source found underground. Fracking is allowed at both the state and federal government levels.
Q: How many states allow fracking?
A: As of 2012, it was reported that 34 states allow fracking. This number is expected to increase, however, as the federal government recently authorized fracking in Texas in an effort to increase its position in the worldwide exportation of natural gas.
On January 4th, the drama “Promised Land” will premiere in theaters across the country. The basis of this film is centered on the subject of hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as fracking, and the possible consequences of this drilling process on nearby communities. Though fracking may seem like an odd topic to choose for a Hollywood film, it has gained a lot of recent attention regarding concerns about environmental impacts, particularly water contamination.
Hydraulic fracturing is a means of extracting resources like natural gas and oil from underground by pumping fluid, usually a mixture of water and chemical additives, into geological formations like shale and coalbed. The pressure from the fluid creates fractures underground, allowing extraction of the resources. A large portion of fracking is conducted in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, New York, Maryland, and Ohio. These states are on top of the formation called Marcellus Shale which is one of the most important gas reserves in the United States. Fracking can also be found in other parts of the country, such as Colorado, Texas, North Dakota and Wyoming.
Though fracking has been performed for many years, it was brought to our attention in 2011 when the EPA reported that sampling showed that water contaminants in a local aquifer in Pavillion, Wyoming were possibly associated with fracking operations. This study was initiated because many local residents complained the drinking water had a bad taste and odor. EPA stressed that the fracking conditions in Pavillion were different from conditions in other parts of the country because it occurred in and below the aquifer and in close proximity to drinking water wells. Therefore, water sources in other parts of the country may not be at risk of contamination if the fracking conditions are different.
So how can fracking result in contaminated water?
As mentioned previously, fracking fluids contain chemical additives. These chemicals are added to change the fluid properties. For instance, some chemicals are used to increase the thickness of the fluid. Hundreds of different chemicals may be used and the types used will vary depending on the site and company performing the fracking. Many of these companies prefer to not publicly disclose the chemicals used which causes more concern.
As part of a 2011 study, the US Committee on Energy and Commerce surveyed 14 leading oil and gas companies to learn about the composition of the fluids used for fracking. The most common chemical used was methanol. Isopropyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and ethylene glycol were also frequently used. These chemicals are not regulated by the EPA due to their low toxicity. A small percentage of companies were found to use petroleum compounds like benzene and toluene which are regulated by the EPA because they are highly mobile in ground water and are known human carcinogens. Other additives, such as instant coffee and walnut hulls, are not chemicals of concern but people are curious about their purpose as an additive.
The additives can possibly contaminate water sources through several routes. A common method of fracking fluid disposal is via underground injection of wastewater. EPA determined that this method is not likely to contaminate drinking water sources though it is mentioned that they reserve the right to conduct additional studies if necessary. Other means of wastewater disposal have a greater risk of water contamination. Since there are no specific national standards for fracking wastewater disposal, some wastewater is transported to treatment plants which are not all equipped to treat this type of water, according to the EPA.
Spills are probably one of the greatest sources of surface water contamination. From January to July 2012, several natural gas drilling incidents occurred in Pennsylvania alone. Thousands of gallons of production fluid were spilled in several of these incidents.
Since this process of natural resource extraction is quickly gaining in popularity, the EPA is still in the process of establishing regulations for fracking. Proponents of fracking, which often include local residents, firmly believe that it is a drilling method that is necessary to increase economic development and energy independence. It is important, however, that the operations are conducted responsibly in order to prevent unnecessary contamination.
Rainwater harvesting is an age-old practice of collecting and using rainwater that has become more popular in recent years. Some people are trying to reduce water usage costs while others are concerned about water quality and possible contaminants in their drinking water. If you are considering rainwater harvesting read below for some useful information to help you better understand the process.
A rainwater harvesting system consists of several components:
- The catchment surface: This can be a roof or other apparatus that initially collects the rainwater. If using a roof, please note that composite or asphalt shingles are not appropriate for drinking water collection.
- Gutters or downspouts: These help to channel the water from the catchment surface.
- Leaf screens: Use screens to remove large debris like twigs and leaves from the rainwater. You may also want to use a first-flush diverter which prevents the initial flow (usually several gallons) from entering a storage unit. This device diverts water containing smaller impurities like pollen, dust, and bird feces away from the storage unit, often to a planted area for fast absorption.
- Storage tanks: Storage tanks, also referred to as cisterns, store the water for future use. The storage tanks can range from trash cans and steel drums to tanks made of fiberglass, polypropylene, stone, or even wood. The type of storage tank depends on precipitation rates, water demand, length of dry spells, catchment surface area, and other considerations.
- Delivery system: Complex rainwater harvesting systems also have a delivery system that allows the water to be gravity-fed or pumped to the location where it will be used.
According to the Colorado State University Extension website, rainwater can contain contaminants like arsenic and mercury which are absorbed from the atmosphere. The water may also contain small fecal matter, microorganisms, and other impurities that the screens and diverters do not remove. If the water is to be used for drinking, it needs to be tested and treated. One treatment solution is to use a water purifier to remove harmful biological and chemical contaminants. While the rainwater may contain harmful contaminants, it will lack minerals like calcium and magnesium which are normally found in groundwater. Since these are beneficial to have in drinking water, you may want to consider adding minerals to the water.
While you may be intimidated by the initial process of setting up the rainwater harvesting system, keep in mind that it will be worth the effort. For every square foot of catchment area, you can harvest about 0.6 gallons for every one inch of precipitation. So if you are using a 1,000 square foot roof as a catchment surface, you can expect to collect approximately 600 gallons every time it rains one inch! It is very important to understand average precipitation amounts for your area. The Western Regional Climate Center has maps that show the annual average precipitation for every state. If you are thinking about constructing a rainwater harvesting system be sure to check with state and local regulations as there may be permits or other requirements that may apply.
For more information about creating a rainwater harvesting system, the Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting is very useful. If you would like a professional to design and install the system, the American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) offers a searchable online directory.